Just knowing how to use technology in the classroom is not what education in the 21st century is really all about, it’s why you use ICT that makes the difference. There are so many different frameworks you can use, I have listed some here. Examine these pedagogical frameworks to inform your practice.
SAMR - Substitute, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition
1. Substitution: the computer stands in for another technological tool without a significant change in the tool’s function.
2. Augmentation: the computer replaces another technological tool, with significant functionality increase.
3. Modification: the computer enables the redesign of significant portions of a task.
4. Redefinition: the computer allows for the creation of new tasks that would otherwise be inconceivable without the technology.
TPACK - Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). As must be clear, the TPACK framework builds on Shulman’s idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge.
The TPACK approach goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation. On the other hand, it emphasizes the new kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between them. Considering P and C together we get Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is applicable to the teaching of specific content. Similarly, considering T and C taken together, we get Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), the knowledge of the relationship between technology and content. At the intersection of T and P, is Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), which emphasizes the existence, components and capabilities of various technologies as they are used in the settings of teaching and learning.
Finally, at the intersection of all three elements is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). True technology integration is understanding and negotiating the relationships between these three components of knowledge. A teacher capable of negotiating these relationships represents a form of expertise different from, and greater than, the knowledge of a disciplinary expert (say a mathematician or a historian), a technology expert (a
computer scientist) and a pedagogical expert (an experienced educator). Effective technology integration for pedagogy around specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, [transactional] relationship between all three components.
TIM - Technology Integration Matrix
The Technology Integration Matrix (TIM) illustrates how teachers can use technology to enhance learning for K-12 students. The TIM incorporates five interdependent characteristics of meaningful learning environments: active,
constructive, goal directed (i.e., reflective), authentic, and collaborative (Jonassen, Howland, Moore, & Marra, 2003). The TIM associates five levels of technology integration (i.e., entry, adoption, adaptation, infusion, and
transformation) with each of the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments. Together, the five levels of technology integration and the five characteristics of meaningful learning environments create a matrix of 25 cells. Each of these cells contains four video examples from teachers' classrooms to demonstrate what this type of technology use might look like.
BECTA - self review framework: ict capability for schools
This detailed framework provides explicit outcome statements for the following areas in school life:
1. Leadership and management
4. Assessment of ICT capability
5. Professional development
CRCD - Collect - Relate - Create - Donate
In Schneiderman’s framework, projects begin with a chance to Collect knowledge, and students research the factual building blocks of their learning project. From there students Relate with one another - since collaboration and cross-cultural communication skills play essential roles in our economic and civic spheres. Based on the collection of building blocks and relating their knowledge to one another, students the Create some kind of tangible demonstration of their understanding. The final part of an activity is to find a forum to Donate the student work so that students can enjoy the opportunity to publish their work and be of service to others.